Part of this project is a study of memoir as a genre (→ memoir project), which means that I rarely need to mention other people I’ve met in life by their names.

But it’s not meaningful to write a memoir/autobiography full of anonyms and pseudonyms, so in the concrete memoir (→ accounts of my life) I will mention individuals whom I have engaged with, both privately and professionally, throughout life.

There are some exceptions, though. I will anonymize now living persons whom I have had an extra-spousal intimate relation with, and those who could otherwise be hurt if I publicize their opinions made in private correspondence or conversations. I will mention them by initial letters or by cover names, and make sure they cannot be identified.

With my mother. Stockholm, 1947.With my mother, winter 1947.


I have an immense personal interest in the project (→ personal aims), and I have a professional interest in the sense that the (hopefully) high quality of my work may be good for my professional reputation. I also have a political interest: I see myself as an activist for graceful ageing. But I have no economic interests, i.e., I don’t expect to generate any income from my  research, and I’m not attached to any political group or party.

Possible biases

Whereas my self-interest has to do with my future ambitions and benefits, bias is the more or less subconscious result of my life history, education, social position and experiences. I have accumulated seven decades of experiences, opinions, prejudices and inclinations, which undoubtedly influence my views of the world and the value of autobiography and memoir work, not to mention my understanding of my own life course.

Below, I list biases that I’m aware of today. The list will probably become more comprehensive as a consequence of my reading of the archival material and my continual uncovering of memories.

Does my social background influence my thinking on autobiography?

I grew up in an urban secular, modern, Swedish lower middle-class family. My mother and grandparents (and their parents and brothers and sisters in turn) were all employed at non-executive levels in the public administration, with no one having any experience from the private sector or the daily life of the manual working class. They didn’t live in luxury, but they had the privilege of a social safety net and secure pension after retirement. “Statens kaka är liten men säker” (‘The cake of the state is small but safe’), they used to say. For me getting a higher education and being employed at the university was a large step upwards on the social — within a decade I went from a lower middle-class background to becoming a member of the narrow educated elite.

It is more difficult to say how my economic and social class background can have influenced my views of the world and my own self, and my views on autobiography. If anything, I long felt a bit guilty over my relatively privileged and secure life. My turn to extreme left-wing organisations in the late 1960s and my transient embrace of (what I thought was) ‘maoism’ was probably fuelled by this feeling of guilt (maybe this was a common attitude among middle-class young men and women at the time?), and I’ve never really felt that my position as a high-salaried professor in a rich and stable country was something I deserved. My research on esoteric topics like the history of ecology, history of immunology, and scientific biography, has always been accompanied by a slight feeling of bad conscience — as if I were selfishly pursuing my own egotistical appetites instead of doing something more socially and politically ‘useful’, for example to alleviate suffering and save the world, like medical doctors, public health researchers or green engineers do.

Similarly, my present interest in my own life-history and, more generally, in academic autobiography as a genre is also slightly tainted by this basic feeling of undeserved privilege. How this shadow of guilt might influence my approach and my specific findings is more difficult to say, however. Maybe my Facebook friends can help me?

Do I have a gender bias?


Is my ethnicity and national background important in this context?


Does my language, education and cultural background play a role?


Does my genetic architecture make me biased in any way?


Am I biased because of my childhood experiences?


My life-long social experiences, social environment and social interaction?


My earlier academic/research experiences?


Other possible sources of bias?